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SPECIMEN C: Loamy soil; DONE

SPECIMEN D: Sandy soil; DONE

SPECIMEN E: Water trough; DONE

SPECIMEN F: Feed trough; DONE

SPECIMEN G: Egg candler; [Rea/Picture/Diagram]

SPECIMEN H: Scoop net;

SPECIMEN I: Sugarcane;

SPECIMEN J: Pineapple fruit (whole);

SPECIMEN K: Ginger (whole),

SPECIMEN L: Honey (labeled);

SPECIMEN M: Sawdust;

SPECIMEN N: Wood shavings;

SPECIMEN O: Electric bulb;

SPECIMEN P: Kerosene lamp;

SPECIMEN Q: Charcoal pot.




Question 1. (a) Identify specimens C and D.

SPECIMEN C: Loamy soil

SPECIMEN D: Sandy soil

(b) In a tabular form, compare three physical characteristics of specimens C and D.

Physical Characteristic Loamy Soil Clay Soil
Particle Size Moderate-sized particles (silt, sand, and clay) Very fine-sized particles (predominantly clay)
Drainage Moderate drainage capability Poor drainage capability
Water Retention Moderate water retention capability High water retention capability
Workability Easy to work with, crumbly texture Heavy and sticky texture, difficult to work with
Erosion Moderate susceptibility to erosion High susceptibility to erosion

(c) (i) Which of specimens C and D would you recommend for pond construction?

For pond construction, it is generally recommended to use clay soil rather than loamy soil.

(ii) Give two reasons for your answer in 1(c)(i).

  • Clay soil has high water retention capability, which is beneficial for maintaining water levels in the pond.
  • It forms a relatively impermeable barrier that helps prevent water seepage and leakage, thereby reducing the risk of water loss.

d Give two uses of Clay and Loamy soil


Pottery and Ceramics: Clay soil is used in making pottery, ceramics, and clay-based building materials due to its plasticity and ability to retain shape when dry.

Construction: Clay soil is used in construction for making bricks, and tiles, and as a stabilizing agent in building foundations.


Agriculture and Gardening:

Loamy soil is ideal for growing crops, vegetables, and ornamental plants due to its balanced composition of sand, silt, and clay particles, which provide good drainage, water retention, and nutrient availability.

Landscaping and Turf Management:

Loamy soil is used for establishing lawns, sports fields, and gardens due to its ability to retain water while still allowing excess water to drain effectively. It provides a stable and nutrient-rich foundation for plants

d) List two ways of improving specimen C Loamy Soil for crop production.

Organic Matter Addition

  • Add compost, well-rotted manure, or cover crops to improve soil structure, water retention, and nutrient content.

Soil Fertilization

  • Apply appropriate fertilizers based on soil test results to ensure optimal nutrient levels for crop growth.

SPECIMEN E: Water trough

What are the uses for water Trough SPECIMEN E?

  • For Livestock watering Purposes
  • Its uses for Farm irrigation
  • For Wildlife attraction
  • Construction and industrial applications (mixing concrete, equipment cooling, dust suppression)
  • Horticulture and gardening (as planters)
  • Rainwater collection
  • Emergency water supply

Give Two Maintenance Practices For Trough SPECIMEN E

Regular Cleaning:

Clean the trough regularly to remove algae, debris, and sediment that can contaminate the water.

Inspect for Damage and Leaks:

Check the trough for cracks, leaks, or weakened areas, and repair or replace them as needed. Also, inspect the water supply connections for leaks.


What are the uses of Feed Trough

  1. Livestock feeding
  2. Poultry feeding
  3. Wildlife feeding
  4. Game farming
  5. Aquaculture feeding
  6. Pet feeding
  7. Laboratory animal feeding

Give Three Maintenance Practices For FEED TROUGH SPECIMEN F

  1. Regular cleaning: Clean the troughs regularly to remove leftover feed and debris.
  2. Inspect for damage: Check for cracks or sharp edges and repair or replace damaged troughs.
  3. Adjust feed levels: Monitor and adjust the feed levels to prevent waste and ensure adequate supply.

Similarities between Water Trough and Feed Trough

  1. Both are containers: Water troughs and feed troughs are containers used for animals.
  2. Convenience for animals: They are designed to make it easy for animals to access water or feed.
  3. Similar materials: They are often made from materials like plastic, metal, or concrete.
  4. Maintenance is needed: Both require regular cleaning and inspections to keep them clean and functional.

Four differences between Water Trough and Feed Trough in a tabular form.

Water Trough Feed Trough
Holds water for animals to drink Holds animal feed for consumption
Provides a water source for hydration Provides a feeding area for animals
Requires regular filling and monitoring of water levels Requires regular filling and monitoring of feed levels
Needs to be cleaned to remove algae and ensure clean water Needs to be cleaned to remove leftover feed and maintain hygiene


Phylum of Earthworm/Specimen A


Reasons for the Classification of Earthworm/Specimen A

– Presence of metameric segmentation/segments are separated from each other (by septa);

– They are bilaterally symmetrical;

– Segments are separated from each other;

– Presence of chaetae;

– Body is covered by thin collagen cuticle;

– Body is long and cylindrical.

Habitat of Earthworm/ Specimen A

– Under decaying leaves;

– Wet/moist soil;

– In open savanna/savannah beneath the tall grasses;

– In the forests in decaying tree-stumps.

Features of Adaptation of Earthworm/Specimen A

– Bristle-like chaetae/seatae; for locomotion;

– Moist skin; for gaseous exchange;

– Pointed anterior; for burrowing into the soil;

– Slimy body; reduces friction during movement;

– Clitellum; for attachment during an exchange of sperm/reproduction/secretes cocoon (in which its eggs are deposited).

Note: Structure and function must correspond to score

Economic Importance of Earthworm/Specimen A

– It aerates the soil;

– It enriches/improves soil fertility;

– Its secretions neutralize the acid soil;

– Used as bait for fishing;

– As food for some birds.


i)  What Kingdom and Class of organisms do specimens  B 

Specimen B – Soldier termite 

Kingdom          Class           Phylum

Animalia          Insecta      Arthropoda

ii) Mode of feeding of Termite/Specimen B

Specimen B possess strong mandible and maxillae (mouth-parts) which enable them to bite and chew plant parts. Therefore their mode of feeding Biting and Chewing

iii) Economics Important of Termite/Specimen B

  1. Insect pests destroy woods in the home through their biting, and chewing activities
  2. They are used as food by humans or are fed to livestock
  3. They are important in nature as decomposers and recyclers of tropical and subtropical dead wood
  4. They increase the cost of production during the course of controlling them
  5. They render vegetables and fruits unattractive and unmarketable
  6. Termites do not carry disease and don’t usually bother buildings because there is not enough water in the wood.

Prevention and Control of Termite/Specimen B

  1. To avoid dampwood termites, make sure water drains away from your house.
  2. Replace any damp or damaged wood on the outside of your home.

iv) Life Cycle of Termite/Specimen B

The life cycle of specimen B is an incomplete metamorphosis stage or life cycle which are from egg, to nymph, and to adult.

Diagram of Specimen /Termite

Specimen Termite

Specimen Termite

v) Name of the habitats of Termite/Specimen B

Specimen B usually lives in damp, dying wood or in houses with leaking plumbing that keeps the wood wet.

Similarities Between Earthworm and Termite

Four simple similarities between earthworms and termites:

Earthworms Termites
Both are small invertebrates Both are small invertebrates
Both are decomposers Both are decomposers
Both play a role in soil fertility Both play a role in nutrient cycling
Both contribute to ecosystem processes Both contribute to ecosystem processes

Four Differences Between Earthworms and Termites:

Earthworms Termites
Earthworms belong to the Annelida phylum Termites belong to the Insecta class
Earthworms primarily live in soil and moist environments Termites typically live in colonies within nests or mounds
Earthworms feed on decaying organic matter in the soil Termites feed on wood or plant material
Earthworms do not cause damage to structures Termites can cause damage to wooden structures

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