2023 NECO Biology Practical Specimen Answers – Alternative A

2023 NECO Biology Practical Specimen Answers
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Specimen A – Land Snail

Specimen B – Toad

Specimen C – Spider

Specimen D – Crayfish

Specimen E – Spirogyra Filaments

Specimen F – mucor/Rhizopus

Specimen G – Groundnut Seeding (A week old)

Specimen H – Maize Seedling (A week old)

Specimen I – Microscope

Specimen J – Slide (plain)

Specimen K – Pigeon

Specimen L – Agama Lizard

Specimen M – Rat

Specimen N – Tilapia


Specimen A – land Snail

Habitat of Specimen A

Specimen A lives in shrublands, agricultural areas, plantations, garden, wetland e.t.c

Phylum – Mollusca

Class – Gastropoda

Observation Features that adapts Specimen A to its habitats

Lungs – Adapt to land habitat through the use of lungs that take in oxygen.

Shells  – for protection

Tentacles – for vision and feelings

Rasp tongue – for consumption and digestion

Foots – for movement inland habitat

Economic Importance of Specimen A

  1. They eat very low on the food web
  2. they provide food for all sorts of mammals, birds earthworm e.t.c
  3. They cause great disaster to farmers crop
  4. they consume rotten vegetation like most leaf.

Mode of the feeding of Specimen A

Is by Scraping and they mostly feed on leaves and insect

Sex of Specimen A

They exhibit Hermaphrodite / Bisexual (The snail with bigger shell are mainly female)

Specimen A  Diagram: Land Snail

Specimen of Land Snail

Specimen of Land Snail

Specimen B: Toad

Habitat of Specimen B

Wet/moist/damp land/under stone/damp grass/vegetation near freshwater ponds.

Class to which Toad/Specimens B Belongs


Observable Features That Adapt Toad/Specimen B to its Habitat

– Poison gland; for protection;
– Warty skin; for camouflage;
– Webbed digits of hind limbs for swimming;
– Bulging eyes; for wide vision;
– Muscular forelimbs; for absorbing shock;
– Long muscular hind limbs for jumping/hopping
– Cryptic coloration for camouflage;
– Moist skin for (cutaneous) respiration.

Mode of Feeding of Toad

It’s by tongue Projection, Toads have a long, sticky tongue that they can rapidly project out of their mouth to catch prey.

Economic Importance of Toad/Specimen B

Predator-Prey Dynamics: Toads help regulate populations of insects and other invertebrates, playing a crucial role in balancing predator-prey relationships.

Nutrient Cycling: Contribute to nutrient cycling through consumption and waste release.

Indicators of Environmental Health: Toads serve as indicator species, reflecting the overall health of ecosystems and signaling changes in water quality and habitat conditions.

Seed Dispersal: Toads inadvertently aid in seed dispersal by consuming fruits or seeds and excreting them in different locations, facilitating plant colonization and genetic diversity.

Prey for Predators: Toads provide a food source for various predators, contributing to the energy flow and trophic interactions within ecosystems.

Genetic Diversity: Toads contribute to overall genetic diversity in ecosystems, allowing for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and promoting resilience.

Food Chain of Toad

grass→ dragon fly→ Toad.

Diagram of Toad Specimen

Specimen - Toad

Specimen – Toad

Specimen C – Spider

Forests (temperate and tropical)/Grasslands/ Deserts/Wetlands (marshes, swamps)/ Caves/ Mountains/ Shrublands (scrublands)

Class Of Specimen C


Observable Features That Adapt Spider/Specimen C to its Habitat

Leg Structure: Adapted for specific habitat movement.
Spinnerets: Silk-producing appendages for web-building.
Chelicerae and Fangs: Adapted for prey capture and venom injection.
Body Size and Shape: Varies based on habitat requirements.
Eyes: Adapted for visual capabilities and prey detection.
Sensory Hairs: Aid in detecting vibrations and prey movements.

Mode of Feeding of Spider

Spiders immobilize prey by biting and injecting venom or using silk to wrap it.

Economic/Biological Importance of Spider/Specimen C

Spiders eat household pests
Spiders are good for gardens
Spiders kill off disease-carrying insects
Spider venom can treat medical conditions
Spider venom can treat medical conditions
Spiders are a food source for other animals
Spiders are an essential part of the ecosystem

Spider Specimen Diagram

Specimen - Spider

Specimen – Spider



Freshwater Habitats, Streams and Rivers, Lakes, and Ponds e.t.c.

Class to which Crayfish/Specimens D Belongs


Observable Features That Adapt Crayfish/Specimen D to its Habitat

  1. Claws and Appendages:
    • Large, powerful claws for defense and prey capture.
    • Walking legs with specialized structures for movement and stability.
  2. Exoskeleton and Body Shape:
    • Protective exoskeleton for defense.
    • Compressed body shape for maneuverability in narrow spaces.
  3. Antennae and Sensory Organs:
    • Long antennae with chemoreceptors for detecting chemicals.
    • Sensory setae for perceiving movements and vibrations.
  4. Abdomen and Tail:
    • Uropods and swimmerets for swimming and stability.
    • Tail fan and telson for propulsion and protection.

Economic Importance of Crayfish/Specimen D

  • It plays a key role in indicating water quality, keystone controls of trophic webs, and bioindicators of communities or habitats.
  • They are a very good source of protein and are very beneficial for human health, widely eaten throughout the world
  • The food industry has been upgraded because of this crayfish as it is in very demand for the purpose of health among the customers.

Mode of Feeding of Crayfish

Crayfish use pincers to grab food and legs to guide it into their mouths. They employ chelipeds to tear apart tough food.

Food Chain Of Crayfish

Algae and Aquatic Plants → Herbivorous Invertebrates → Crayfish

Diagram of Specimen Crayfish

Specimen - Crayfish

Specimen – Crayfish



Walls/cracks/mountain slopes

Class to which Agama Lizard/Specimens L belong


Observable Similarities in Toad and Agama Lizard

Both have
Eyes; – (wide terminal) mouth;
Head; – 2 pairs/ 4 limbs/forelimb/hindlimb;
Nostrils – tympanic membrane/eardrum/eardrum;

Observable Differences Between Toad and Agama Lizard

CharacteristicToad (Specimen B)Agama Lizard (Specimen L)
Poison GlandPresentAbsent
Gular FoldAbsentPresent
Eye AppearanceBulgingNot bulging
Body ShapeStreamlinedNot streamlined
Skin TextureWartyNo warts
Nuchal CrestAbsentPresent
Webbing of Hind LimbsPresentNot present
Claws on DigitsAbsentPresent
Forelimb DigitsFourFive
Body ShapeShort and wideLong and narrow

Sex of Agama Lizard/Specimen L

Male (Reasons for the answer are given below)

– Brightly colored with redhead/blue-black trunk;
– Blue and orange tail;
– Presence of Gular fold
– Prominent Nuchal crest.

Observable Features That Adapt Agama Lizard/Specimen L to its Habitat

Limbs: Well-developed for swift movement.
Claws: Sharp claws for gripping and climbing.
Tail: Long and agile for balance and communication.
Head and Jaws: Adapted for capturing diverse prey.
Eyes: Positioned for a wide field of vision.
Skin: Covered in scales for protection and water regulation.
Coloration: Vibrant patterns for communication and camouflage.
Tongue: Long and agile tongue for capturing prey with precision.
Teeth: Sharp teeth for biting and gripping prey.
Jaw Muscles: Strong jaw muscles for powerful biting force.
Sensitive Toes: Specialized toes with sensory receptors for enhanced grip and balance on different surfaces.
Skin Pores: Numerous skin pores for thermoregulation and water loss control.
Eyelids: Moveable eyelids for protecting the eyes and regulating light exposure.
Ear Openings: External ear openings for detecting sound waves and communication.

Mode of Feeding of Agama Lizard

  1. Sit-and-wait strategy: They perch and observe their surroundings.
  2. Lightning-fast strikes: Swiftly extend their body to snatch prey.
  3. Strong jaws: Secure a firm grip on the prey.
  4. Swallowing whole: Consume prey in one piece.

Diagram of Agama Lizard





Freshwater lakes, ponds, and rivers/ Marshes, swamps, and estuaries/ Coastal waters with varying salinity/ Aquaculture systems (fish ponds, tanks, cages).

Class to which Tilapia/Specimen N belong


  • Body is covered with scales;
  • Presence of paired fins;
  • Presence of lateral line(s);
  • Presence of operculum/gill cover.

Observable Features That Adapt Tilapia/Specimen N to its Habitat

  1. Gills: Extract oxygen from the water for respiration.
  2. Fins: Provide stability, maneuverability, and propulsion.
  3. Lateral Line System: Detect vibrations and changes in water movement.
  4. Scales: Provide protection and assist in buoyancy control.
  5. Swim Bladder: Regulate buoyancy and depth in the water.
  6. Mouth and Teeth: Adapted for specific feeding habits.

Characteristics of specimen N (Tilapia) that make it culturable

–           the ability to breed in captivity
–           hardiness/tolerates poor water quality(but not low dissolved oxygen)
–           accept artificial feed
–           matures early/fast maturity
–           acceptable to consumers
–           highly prolific/breeds easily/breeds rapidly
–           utilizes natural food well/high conversion of feed.
–           has high resistance to disease.

Food Chain of Tilapia

Algae (Primary Producer) → Zooplankton (Primary Consumer) → Tilapia (Secondary Consumer)

Economic Importance of Tilapia/Specimen N

Aquaculture: Fast-growing and adaptable, tilapia is extensively farmed worldwide, providing sustainable protein and generating revenue.

Food Security: Tilapia efficiently converts feed into edible flesh, addressing global food security and meeting protein demands.

Employment: Tilapia farming creates job opportunities, particularly in rural areas, supporting skilled workers in breeding, feeding, and processing.

Export and Trade: With high export value, tilapia contributes to international trade, supplying fresh and processed products.

Poverty Alleviation: Tilapia farming helps alleviate poverty, providing income and food security for small-scale farmers in developing countries.

Environmental Benefits: Sustainable tilapia farming reduces pressure on wild fish stocks and promotes environmental sustainability.

Diagram of Tilapia Fish

Tilapia Fish Specimen

Tilapia Fish Specimen

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