2023 WAEC Biology Practical Specimen Answers – Alternative A

WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2023
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Specimen A – Mature fresh eggs of catfish

Specimen B – Fresh egg of domestic fowl (raw, with shell intact)

Specimen C – Picture/model/chart of uterus containing a foetus

Specimen D – Longitudinal section of an ovary of pride of Barbados flower

Specimen E – leaf of pride of Barbados flower DONE

Specimen F – Panicum plant/Guinea grass (whole plant)

Specimen G – Cocoyam plant/Caladium plant (whole plant)

Specimen H – Corm of cocoyam

Specimen J – Dry humus in a beaker

Specimen K – Moist humus in a beaker

Specimen L – Ripe orange fruit (whole) DONE

Specimen M – Longitudinal section of coconut fruit DONE

Specimen N – Longitudinal section of fresh chill pepper fruit. DONE



The botanical name for Specimen L is Citrus sinensis.

Classification of Specimen L

It is classified as a type of fleshy fruit

SpeciesCitrus sinensis

Structure of Specimen L

It consists of three layers which are

  • Epicarp
  • Mesocarp and
  • Endocarp

Economics Important of Specimen L 

  • Nutritional Value
  • Disease Prevention
  • Food and Beverages
  • Employment

Mode of dispersal of specimen L

Human Activities

Explanation In case you want it.

  1. Human Activities: Oranges are cultivated and transported by humans for consumption and sale. This is the most common mode of dispersal for oranges.
  2. Animals: Wild oranges may be dispersed by animals that feed on their fruits. Birds and mammals, such as bats, may eat oranges and then disperse the seeds in their feces, allowing for the germination and growth of new orange trees.
  3. Water: Oranges may also be dispersed by water. Seeds that fall into rivers or streams may be carried downstream and eventually germinate in new locations.
  4. Wind: While wind dispersal, it is possible for seeds to be carried short distances by wind, allowing for the establishment of new trees.

Source of Food of Specimen L

Vitamin C

Characteristics of Specimen L

  1. They have a pleasant aroma
  2. The skin colour of Specimen L range from green to yellow.
  3. Specimen L can be easy press with your thumb.
  4. The flesh of specimen L is juicy, pulpy, and segmented, with a sweet and tangy flavor.
  5. The Seeds of specimen L contain small, white seeds that are edible but are usually not consumed.

Specimen L  Diagram: Whole Section of Ripe Orange

Transverse Section of Specimen L - Ripped Orange

Transverse Section of Specimen L – Ripped Orange

Specimen M – Longitudinal section of coconut fruit

Botanical Name of Specimen M

The botanical name of specimen  M is Cocos nucifera.

Classification of Specimen M

Coconuts are classified as fibrous drupes.

Structure of Specimen M

Mesocarp and

N:B –    type of fleshy fruit of specimen M is Dupe.

Economic Important Of Specimen M


Coconut is a staple food in many tropical regions and is used in a variety of dishes, such as curries, soups, desserts, and beverages. It is also a rich source of oil, which is used in cooking, food processing, and as an ingredient in many cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.


Coconut plantations provide a source of livelihood for many people, particularly in developing countries. Coconut farming generates employment opportunities for millions of farmers and laborers worldwide, and it is an important source of foreign exchange earnings for many countries that export coconut products.


The coconut industry is diverse and includes the production of copra, coconut oil, coconut water, coconut milk, desiccated coconut, and other coconut-based products. These products are used in various industries such as food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels.


Coconut is a major commodity in international trade, and many countries rely on exports of coconut products as a source of revenue. The top exporters of coconut products include the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

Environmental benefits

Coconut trees are valuable for their ability to provide shade, prevent soil erosion, and improve soil fertility.

They also have a low carbon footprint, as they require minimal inputs and are sustainable crops that can be grown without the use of harmful pesticides or fertilizers.

Mode of Dispersal of Specimen M

Source of Food of Specimen M
Vitamin B and Vitamin C

Characteristics of Specimen M

  • Hard, brown, fibrous outer shell.
  • Large, spherical shape with an average diameter of 10-12 inches and weight of 1-2 kilograms.
  • Edible, white, meaty flesh with a nutty flavor.
  • Three distinct layers: the outer shell, fibrous husk, and inner flesh containing coconut water and meat.

Specimen M  Diagram – Longitudinal section of Coconut.

Structure of a coconut fruit

Structure of a coconut fruit

Specimen N – Longitudinal section of fresh chill Pepper

The botanical name of Specimen N:

Is called Capsicum Annuum chili peppers.

Classification of Specimen N

FamilySolanaceae, also known as the nightshade family

It is classified as a type of Bery Fruit. Reason

Pepper is classified as a berry because it meets the botanical definition of a fruit that is a berry. A berry is a type of simple fruit that develops from a single ovary of a flower and has multiple seeds embedded in the flesh of the fruit.

Structure of Specimen N

It consists of three layers which are

  1. Pericarp (Outer Layer)
  2. Placenta (central structure containing seeds and capsaicinoids)
  3. Seeds (mature ovules)

N:B – The type of fruit of specimen N is a fleshy berry

Economics Important of Specimen N

  1. It has a high nutritive and medicinal value
  2. Chili pepper is important because it is used in many cuisines around the world
  3. it is a valuable export commodity
  4. They are popular as an ornamental plant

Characteristics of Specimen N

  • Pungent taste and heat from capsaicin
  • Fruits can vary in color, from green to purple/black
    Fruits vary in shape and size
  • Plant size and growth habits vary depending on the variety and growing conditions.

Mode of dispersal of specimen N

  • Birds, such as sparrows, jays, and thrashers, are common dispersers of chili pepper seeds.
  • Mammals, such as men, squirrels, chipmunks, and rodents, can also consume and disperse chili pepper seeds.
  • Bats are also known to consume chili pepper fruits and can help disperse the seeds.

Specimen N  Diagram: Longitudinal Section of Fresh Chill Pepper

Longitudinal Section of Fresh Chill Pepper

Longitudinal Section of Fresh Chill Pepper

Specimen E – Leaf of pride of Barbados flower




 Floral parts of Specimen E/Pride of Barbados flower


Number of Floral parts of Specimen E/Pride of Barbados flower

Sepals/calyx: 5/4+1
Petals/corolla: 5/4+1
Stamen/androecium: 10
Pistil/gynoecium: 1

Sex of Specimen E/Pride of Barbados flower


The symmetry of Specimen E/Pride of Barbados flower

Bilateral/bilaterally symmetrical.

Name of a pollinating agent of specimens E/Pride of Barbados

Specimen E/Pride of Barbados: Butterfly/Bees

leaf of pride of Barbados flower

leaf of pride of Barbados flower

Specimen D – Longitudinal section of an ovary of pride of Barbados flower

Specimen D is a flower

What type of ovary is presented in specimen D?

Type of ovary: Superior Ovary. Reasons

Ovary is located at a higher position than the receptacle/on top of the receptacle/above the point of attachment of other floral parts.

Describe the petals and sepals of specimen D.

Description of petals and sepals: Sepals are of the same color as petals/petaloid.

Sepals are smaller than petals in size.

Petals are fan-shaped; brightly colored.

Standard petals are tubular/flat with marks.

– One sepal is keel-shaped.

What is the function of the special petal? 

The function of the special petal: It guides insects/bees to the nectar

State three features of specimen D that have led to the success of Flowering plants

Brightly coloured petal attracts insects which pollinate flower

– Large petals which are easily seen.

– The presence of nectar, attract insect which enhances cross-pollination leading to variety and survival of the species.

– Sticky stigma to hold pollen grains for pollination.

– Sticky/rough pollen grains to ensure pollination/attachment to insects.

Make a drawing 10 – 12 cm long of the remaining parts of specimen D and label

Longitudinal section of an ovary of pride of Barbados flower

Longitudinal section of an ovary of pride of Barbados flower

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