Comprehensive JAMB Syllabus For Biology 2023/2024

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Jamb Syllabus for Biology for 2023 is now available, candidates preparing for JAMB 2021 are advised to download the latest Jamb Syllabus 2023 in other to get prepared ahead of the forthcoming UTME Examination.

The Jamb Syllabus for Biology 2023 will help candidates pinpoint their reading or studies toward better topics and courses that will be set for the 2023 UTME examination.

What is Jamb Syllabus?

Simply means a summary of topics that jamb has converted during an academic course which is expected to be asked during an Examination day.

Challenges students face are the inability of them to get the right tools or materials to study, there is a way to go about reading your syllabus. Your JAMB syllabus for Biology for 2023 is not meant for you to just know the topics you should stay focused on by studying.

Meanwhile, Nkedugist wants to let you know that the importance of the JAMB Biology Syllabus cannot be overemphasized. The candidate who took it upon themselves is the on coming out with good scores and grades for their exams

  • Speed and manipulative skills;
  • comprehension of questions set up.
  • logical and formal reasoning skills;
  • Understanding concepts to answer questions of different Topics.

1. Living organisms:

a. Characteristics

b. Cell structure and functions of cell Components

c. Level of organization
i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas

2. Evolution

a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.

b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),
e.g Amoeba Euglena and Paramecium

c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.

3. Plantae (plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)

 3. Animalia (animals)

i. Invertebrates
coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
– Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
– Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
– Aves (birds)
– Mammalia (mammals)

4. Structural/functional and behavioral adaptations of organisms.

i. adaptive colouration and its functions

ii. Behavioural adaptations in social animals

iii. Structural adaptations in organisms.


a. The internal structure of a flowering plant
ii. Stem
iii. Leaf
b. The internal structure of a mammal
i. Nutrition
ii. Modes of nutrition
iii. Autotrophic
iv. Heterotrophic
c. Types of Nutrition
i. Plant nutrition
ii. Photosynthesis
iii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)

6. Animal nutrition

i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water
ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.
iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions
iv. Mammalian alimentary canal
v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food.

7. Transport

a. Need for transportation

Materials for transportation. (Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)

b. Channels for transportation
i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)
ii. Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)
iii. Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.

8. Respiration

a. Respiratory organs and surfaces

The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:
i. Plants
ii. Mammals

b. Aerobic respiration

c. Anaerobic respiration

9. Excretion

a. Types of excretory structures:

i. contractile vacuole

ii. flame cell, nephridium,

iii. Malpighian tubule,

iv. kidney, stoma, and lenticel.

b. Excretory mechanisms:
i. Kidneys
ii. lungs
ii. skin

10. Excretory products of plants

Support and movement

Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants

supporting tissues in animals

Types and functions of the skeleton
i. Exoskeleton
ii. Endoskeleton
iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals

11. Reproduction

a. sexual reproduction
i. Fission as in Paramecium
ii. Budding as in yeast
iii. Natural vegetative propagation
iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.

b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants
i. Floral parts and their functions
ii. Pollination and fertilization
iii. products of sexual reproduction

c. Reproduction in mammals
i.structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs
ii. Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gametes)

12. Growth

a. meaning of growth

b. Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.

13. Co-ordination and control

a. Nervous coordination:
i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;
ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;
iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;
iv. Reflex action

b. The sense organs
i. skin (tactile)
ii. nose (olfactory)
iii. tongue (taste)
iv. eye (sight)
v. ear (auditory)

c. Hormonal control
i. animal hormonal system
– Pituitary
– thyroid
– parathyroid
– adrenal gland
– pancreas
– gonads
ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones

d. Homeostasis
i. Body temperature regulation
ii. Salt and water regulation


a. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms

i. Abiotic

ii. Biotic

b. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals

c. Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains, food webs and trophic levels

d. Nutrient cycling in nature
i. carbon cycle
ii. water cycle
iii. Nitrogen cycle

15. Natural Habitats

Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)

Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.

16. Local (Nigerian Biomes)

i. Tropical rainforest

ii. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)

iii. Sudan Savanna

iv. Desert

v. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.

17. The Ecology of Populations:

a. Population density and overcrowding.

b. Adaptation for survival
i. Factors that bring about competition
ii. Intra and inter-specific competition
iii. Relationship between competition and succession.

c. Factors affecting population sizes:
i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).
ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.

d. Ecological succession
i. primary succession
ii. secondary succession

18. SOIL

a. characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)
i. soil structure
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus content
iii. Components of the soil
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. Soil air
v. Soil water

b. Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility

19. Humans and Environment

a. Diseases:
(i) Common and endemic diseases.
ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:
sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.

b. Pollution and its control
(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(ii) Sanitation and sewage

c. Conservation of Natural ResourcesiGame reserves and National parks


a. Variation In Population

b. Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.
(i) size (height, weight)
(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
(iii) Fingerprints

c. Physiological variation
(i) Ability to roll tongue
(ii) Ability to taste
phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(iii) Blood groups

d. Application of discontinuous
i. variation in crime detection,
ii. blood transfusion and
iii. determination of paternity.

21. Heredity

a. Inheritance of characters in organisms;
b.  Heritable and non-heritable characters.

c. Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;
(i) Structure
(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

d. Probability in genetics and sex determination.

e. Application of the principles of heredity in:
i) Agriculture
(ii) Medicine

f. Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.


i. Theories of evolution

ii. Lamarck’s theory

iii. Darwin’s theory

iv. organic theory


Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3, written by Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O.
Essentials of Biology, by Odunfa, S.A.
Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books, by Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A
Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, by Ramalingam, S.T
Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, by Stan
Biology for West African Schools. by Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.
Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, by Usua, E.J

Summary of Jamb Syllabus for Biology for 2023

Jamb syllabus for Biology is a guideline necessary material for every candidate who wants to succeed and come out will good grades after studying.

At your convenience time, relax and take a breath, the most important thing is to understand the Jamb Syllabus Biology for 2023. Nkedugists wish you success in your exams.

We’re wishing all students the very best as you study, and don’t forget to share this information with your friends on Facebook, Twitter, and Google+, using the

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