# Particles Of The Atom and Discoveries Of the Particles

properties of groups in the periodic table
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properties of groups in the periodic table which element groups are groups I, II, III, IV, and O are provided on this page.

#### Properties of Periodic Table Groups

The vertical columns are called groups. Element in the same groups has the same number of electrons in their outermost shell. The number of electrons at the outermost shell represents the group of that element and sometimes the valency. If the element is a metal.

Note that Helium has two electrons in its outermost shell and it is placed along with elements in group O. This is because the two elements in the outermost shell of Helium make the shells to be completed as eight electrons in the outermost shell of Neon and Argon

#### Properties of Periodic Table Periods

The horizontal rows are called periods elements in the periodic table. Element in the same period has the number of shells in their atom.

Classification Of Elements

The classification of elements are groups from 1 – 8 which are

Groups I

Groups II

Groups III

Groups IV

Groups V

Groups VI

Groups VII

Groups O

Some Questions on Properties of Groups in the Periodic Table

1. Explain the discovery of electrons by J. J. Thompson

2. Explain the discovery of proton by J.J. Thompson

3. Explain the discovery properties of elements in groups I, II, III, IV, and O

Solution 1

J. J. Thompson (1897) discovered electrons using cathode ray tube experiments. He subjected residual gas to a high potential difference at very low pressure. The Ray’s were found to have the following characteristics:

1. They cast shadows of opaque objects placed in their path showing that they move in straight lines.

2. They are deflected to the positive pole of an electrostatic field or magnetic field showing that they are negatively charged.

Solution 2

J. J. Thompson repeated his experiment using a perforated cathode. He observed Rays moving in the opposite direction to that of the cathode rays.
The experiment also revealed that the rays have the following characteristics.

1. They travel in straight lines
2. They are positively charged.

Solution 3

Properties of Group I, II, and III

1. Atoms of elements in groups I, II, and III have 1,2or 3 electrons (s)in their outermost shells.

2. The atoms of these elements have the ability to lose the electron (s) to attain the stable configuration of atom of the noble gas element proceeding them.

3. They become positively charged atoms called cations.

4. The elements are called electropositive elements or metals.

Properties of Group IV Elements

1. Atoms of elements in this group have four electrons in their outermost shell.

2. The atoms of these elements can either lose four electrons to become cations carrying four positive charges or gain four electrons to become anion carrying four negative charges.

3. They are in between metals end non-metals and they are called metalloids.

Properties of Group O Elements
1. Atoms of elements in group O have complete outermost most electrons shells with either 2 electrons or 8 electrons respectively called duplet or octet.

2. The atoms of these elements can be said to have a stable electronic configuration.

3. They do not have the ability to give out or accept electrons.

4. They can not react with other elements.

5. They are inert in nature.

6. They are called inert or noble gases or rare gases.

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