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1. MEANING AND SCOPE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER – GOVERNMENT
(i) Government as an institution of the state.
(ii) Government as a process or art of governing.
(iii) Government as an academic field of study.
2. BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT
(i) Basic Concepts – Power, Authority, Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Democracy, Political Culture, Political Socialization, Communalism, Socialism, Communism, Capitalism, Feudalism, Fascism, Nazism, Totalitarianism, Society, State and Nation, Colonialism and Nationalism.
(ii) Basic Principles – Rule of Law, Fundamental Human Rights, Separation of Powers/Checks and balances, Constitutionalism, Political Participation, Representative Government, Centralization and Decentralization – (Delegated Legislation, Devolution, and Deconcentration).
(i) Definition and sources.
(iii) Types – Written and Unwritten; rigid and flexible.
4. TYPES/FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential or non-parliamentary, Parliamentary or Cabinet, Monarchical and Republican.
5. ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT
The Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. (Types/structure, composition/membership; functions; power and limitations).
Status, Rights, Duties and Obligations of individuals in the state.
7. POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY SYSTEMS
(i) Political Parties – definition, organization, types and functions.
(ii) Party Systems – definition, types and characteristics.
8. THE ELECTORAL PROCESS
(i) Meaning, Types and Suffrage.
(ii) Purposes of Elections.
(iii) Organization of Elections – Features of free and fair elections; stages of elections.
(iv) Types and characteristics of Electoral systems.
(v) Electoral Commission – Roles or duties of electoral commissions. Problems,
Organization and Characteristics.
9. PRESSURE GROUPS AND PUBLIC OPINION
(i) Pressure Groups – definition, types, characteristics, mode of operation and functions.
(ii) Public Opinion – definition, formation, measurement and functions.
10. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
(i) Definition of Public Administration.
(ii) Civil Service – Meaning, Structure, Characteristics and Functions.
(iii) The Public/Civil Service Commission – Composition and Functions.
(iv) Public Corporations – definition, purposes, functions, organization, control and problems.
(v) Local Governments – Meaning, Types, Purposes, Functions, Sources of Revenue, Control,
Problems and Reforms.
SECTION B: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN WEST AFRICA
AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.
1. PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF CANDIDATES’
The Structural Organization of the following:
(a) Nigeria – Hausa/Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo.
(b) Ghana – The Akan, the Ewe and the Mole Dagbani.
(c) Sierra Leone – The Mende and Temne.
(d) The Gambia – The Wolof and Mandingo.
(e) Liberia – The Vai and the Kru.
2. COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
(i) Reasons for Colonialism.
(ii) The policy and structure of the British Colonial Administration – Crown Colony, Protectorate, and Indirect Rule.
(iii) The policy of French Colonial Administration – Assimilation and Association.
(iv) Chieftaincy during the colonial period – status and functions.
3. NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA
(i) Nationalism before the Second World War (Proto-nationalism) – Meaning, features, and factors.
(ii) Nationalism after the Second World War – factors, growth, and effects.
4. CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS OF CANDIDATES’
(i) Pre-independence Constitutions – (Background, main features, merits, and demerits)
(a) Nigeria – Clifford 1922,
(b) Ghana – Clifford 1916,
Arden Clarke 1951,
(c) Sierra Leone – Slater 1924,
Beresford Stooke 1951,
The 1956 and 1958 Constitutions.
(d) The Gambia – 1947, 1951, 1954, 1960, 1962 and 1963
Post-independence Constitutions – (Background, main features, merits, and demerits)
(a) Nigeria – Independence Constitution 1960,
Republican Constitution 1963,
The 1979 and 1989 Constitutions.
(b) Ghana – Independence Constitution 1957,
Republican Constitution 1960,
2nd Republican Constitution 1969,
The 1979 and 1992 Constitutions.
(c) Sierra Leone – Independence Constitution 1961,
Republican Constitution 1971,
The 1978 and 1991 Constitutions.
(d) The Gambia – Independence Constitution 1965,
Republican Constitution of 1970.
(e) Liberia – Independence/Republican Constitution 1985.
5. DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE
CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES
Formation, objectives, achievements, and failures.
6. MILITARY RULE IN THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES
7. FEDERAL/UNITARY SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT IN
Factors, Structures, Features, and Problems.
8. FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE
Definitions, Factors, Advantages, and Disadvantages.
9. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
The United Nations Organization (UNO);
The Organization of African Unity (OAU);
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
Summary of Government Waec Syllabus 2021
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